Multiple Myeloma: Radiation Therapy
What is radiation therapy?
Radiation uses high-energy beams of X-rays or particles to kill cancer cells.
When might radiation be used?
Radiation is not a main treatment for multiple myeloma, but it can be part of the treatment for some people. Your healthcare provider may suggest radiation to:
Help relieve bone pain that isn’t responding to other treatments.
Treat a single plasma cell tumor, called a solitary plasmacytoma. In this case, it may be the main treatment.
You will meet with your healthcare team to plan radiation. Your team might include a hematologist, radiation oncologist, and medical oncologist.
What happens during radiation?
The most common way to get radiation for myeloma is from a machine outside your body. The machine gives off invisible beams of energy. This is called external radiation. A doctor who specializes in cancer and radiation is called a radiation oncologist. This doctor works with you to decide the kind of radiation you need, as well as the dose and how long you’ll need the treatment.
You usually get external radiation therapy on an outpatient basis in a hospital or a clinic. How often and how long you get this treatment depends on why it’s being given.
Preparing for radiation
Before your first treatment, you’ll have a session to check exactly where on your body the radiation beams need to go. The process is called simulation. It may take up to 2 hours. During this session, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans may be done. This is to help your healthcare provider know the exact location of your tumor(s) in order to aim the radiation. Body molds or casts may also be made at this visit. These help put you in the same position for each treatment and help keep you from moving during treatment. You’ll lie still on a table while a radiation therapist uses a machine to define your treatment field or port. The field is the exact area on your body where the radiation will be aimed. The therapist may mark your skin with tiny dots of semi-permanent ink or tiny tattoos so that the radiation will be aimed at the exact same place each time.
On the days you get radiation
On the days you get radiation treatment, you’ll lie on a table while the machine is placed over you. You may have to wear a hospital gown. It’s a lot like getting an X-ray, only longer. It usually takes about 15 to 30 minutes to do. But you should plan on being there for about an hour.
At the start of the treatment session, a radiation therapist may place blocks or special shields to protect parts of your body from radiation exposure. The therapist then lines up the machine so that radiation is directed to the right place. You may see lights from the machine that line up with the spots that were marked during simulation. When you’re ready, the therapist leaves the room and turns the machine on. You may hear whirring or clicking noises, much like the sounds of a vacuum cleaner, while the radiation is being given. During treatment, you’ll be able to hear and talk to the therapist over an intercom. You can’t feel radiation, and it doesn't hurt. You will not be radioactive afterward.
What to expect after radiation therapy
Because radiation affects normal cells as well as cancer cells, you may have some side effects. The side effects from radiation are often limited to the area being treated. Some people have few or no side effects. If you do have them, your healthcare provider may change your treatments or stop treatment until the side effects are cleared up. Be sure to tell your healthcare provider about any side effects you have.
Potential side effects
Common side effects of radiation include:
Skin irritation or changes in your skin that gets radiation. This is often like a bad sun burn and the skin may blister and peel.
Nausea or diarrhea. This can happen if radiation is aimed at your stomach or pelvis.
Low blood cell counts
If you have any of these side effects, talk with your healthcare provider about how to deal with them. Also ask how to know when they become serious and when you need to call your provider. Know how to get help after office hours and on weekends and holidays.
Side effects usually go away over time after you stop getting treatment.